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The greatest innovation in my (current) field is Tamm and Sakharov’s invention of the tokamak (a contraction of a Russian phrase meaning toroidal chamber with a magnetic field). Tokamaks are ingenious ‘magnetic bottles’ that can contain plasma heated to over 100 million degrees centigrade, in which isotopes of hydrogen can fuse to produce energy. Tokamaks are the most promising route to mastering fusion (which powers the sun) on earth and thereby providing an essentially limitless, environmentally responsible, large scale source of energy.