Home
Mobile version
spiked plus
About spiked
What is spiked?
Support spiked
spiked shop
Contact us
Advertising
Summer school
Top issues
Abortion
Arab uprisings
British politics
Child abuse panic
Economy
Environment
For Europe, Against the EU
Free speech
Jimmy Savile scandal
Nudge
Obesity
Parents and kids
Population
USA
View all issues...
special feature
The Counter-Leveson Inquiry
other sections
 Letters
 Review of Books
 Monthly archive
selected authors
Duleep Allirajah
Daniel Ben-Ami
Tim Black
Jennie Bristow
Sean Collins
Dr Michael Fitzpatrick
Frank Furedi
Helene Guldberg
Patrick Hayes
Mick Hume
Rob Lyons
Brendan O’Neill
Nathalie Rothschild
James Woudhuysen
more authors...
RSS feed
survey

abc def ghi jkl mno pqrs tuv wxyz index
Survey home
Introduction
Survey responses
RSS feed
Anjana Ahuja
Julian Baggini
Philip Ball
Marlene Oscar Berman
Gustav VR Born
K Eric Drexler
Marcus Du Sautoy
Edmond H Fischer
John Hall
Tim Hunt
Wolfgang Ketterle
Leon Lederman
Matt Ridley
Raymond Tallis
Frank Wilczek
Lewis Wolpert
Professor Vladimir Burdyuzha
Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow

An important event of modern cosmology was a new experimental fact that dark energy was already boosting the expansion of the Universe as long as nine billion years ago. In November 2006, investigators at Space Science Institute in Baltimore using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope announced this result based on analysis of the 24 most distant supernovae during the last two years.

Very probably that dark energy is a vacuum component of the Universe density which is more than 70 per cent from full energy density. Our Universe expands with acceleration and the reason of this acceleration is vacuum energy because of it state equation is p=-ε (p is pressure; ε is density of energy). Vacuum energy in the first parts of a second of the Universe life was similar to quintessence (it changed by jumps during phase transitions when the Universe was losing symmetry for cool down from temperature 1032K (1019GeV) to temperature 0.15x1013K (0.15 GeV). For temperature 0.15x1013K this vacuum has hardened, that is it has become cosmological constant when a quark-gluon vacuum condensate has produced (space vacuum is a complex system of quantum fields vacuum condensates). It was ‘last’ phase transition in very early Universe when chiral QCD (quantum chromodynamic) symmetry broke (symmetry of left – right). Probably the prediction of Albert Einstein is carried out since really we have a cosmological constant that was introduced in his gravitational equations in the beginning of last century.