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Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow

An important event of modern cosmology was a new experimental fact that dark energy was already boosting the expansion of the Universe as long as nine billion years ago. In November 2006, investigators at Space Science Institute in Baltimore using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope announced this result based on analysis of the 24 most distant supernovae during the last two years.

Very probably that dark energy is a vacuum component of the Universe density which is more than 70 per cent from full energy density. Our Universe expands with acceleration and the reason of this acceleration is vacuum energy because of it state equation is p=-ε (p is pressure; ε is density of energy). Vacuum energy in the first parts of a second of the Universe life was similar to quintessence (it changed by jumps during phase transitions when the Universe was losing symmetry for cool down from temperature 1032K (1019GeV) to temperature 0.15x1013K (0.15 GeV). For temperature 0.15x1013K this vacuum has hardened, that is it has become cosmological constant when a quark-gluon vacuum condensate has produced (space vacuum is a complex system of quantum fields vacuum condensates). It was ‘last’ phase transition in very early Universe when chiral QCD (quantum chromodynamic) symmetry broke (symmetry of left – right). Probably the prediction of Albert Einstein is carried out since really we have a cosmological constant that was introduced in his gravitational equations in the beginning of last century.