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Anjana Ahuja
Julian Baggini
Philip Ball
Marlene Oscar Berman
Gustav VR Born
K Eric Drexler
Marcus Du Sautoy
Edmond H Fischer
John Hall
Tim Hunt
Wolfgang Ketterle
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Raymond Tallis
Frank Wilczek
Lewis Wolpert
Professor Howard Garner
professor of cognition and education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education
The ‘cognitive revolution’: researchers peered inside the black box and attempted to describe the mental structures and processes that are - or give rise to - thoughts as well as behaviours.
John Garrow
emeritus professor of human nutrition University of London
The greatest innovation in the field of human nutrition was the Human Calorimeter built by W O Atwater and F G Benedict in a basement room in the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut
Dr Lee C Gerhard
independent geologist working with Thomasson Partner Associates
James Hutton's famous Uniformitarianism statement of 1783, ‘The Present is the Key to the Past’ is the basis of geology.
Dr Adrian Gibbs
The single most important invention for understanding the evolution of viruses was gene sequencing, closely followed by computers
Dr Ian Gibson
MP for Norwich North, ex-dean of the School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia
The greatest innovation in my field was the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) process by which several sections of DNA could be multiplied many times accurately to give many copies.
Dr Chris Goodier
senior research associate, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University
The invention of concrete, which is now the 2nd most used resource in the world.
Dr Kenneth Green
resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute
The environmental movement of the 1970s raised awareness of the many harms that humans can do to the environment; Aaron Wildavsky created a rational framework for figuring out what to do about it.
Dr John Gribbin
astrophysicist and science writer
The World Wide Web
Clive Grinyer
director of design, Orange France Telecom ExploCentre
Text messaging, originally installed as a tool for engineers to repair or update phones, provided a fast, non-intrusive, secretive way of communicating that proved hugely popular.
Professor J Storrs Hall
research fellow of the Institute for Molecular Manufacturing and an independent author.
Philosophers (ranging from philosophers of mind to moral) still haven't managed to digest Darwin’s theory of evolution yet, and when they do, philosophy will look completely different.
John Hall
University of Colorado at Boulder; winner, Nobel Prize for Physics, 2005
A new laser can be brought into the lab, unpacked, and measured accurately (how about 15 digits?) before lunch, and perhaps even before morning coffee time
John Harnad
professor of mathematics and statistics at Concordia University in Montréal
The demonstration of renormalisability in 1970-71 brought theoretical high-energy physics back onto a consistent track.
Dr Dennis Hayes
joint president, University and College Union, founder Academics for Academic Freedom
Over two millennia later, the Socratic dialectic is more important than ever.
Nick Hayward
researcher in biophysics and the biology of neurodegenerative diseases at the University of Kuopio
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has accelerated the advancement of many fields of research
Dr Kerry Hempenstall
Educational psychologist, senior lecturer in psychology at RMIT University in Melbourne
When the alphabetic principle is understood, we can read and write any words that we can say, not only the words that we’ve seen before and managed to recognise
Dr Caspar JM Hewett
chair of the Great Debate and environmental consultant
The digital computer, which has enabled the mathematical modelling of complex processes.
Dr Sharon Ann Holgate
freelance science writer and broadcaster
I've often wondered if the scientists responsible for the transistor had even begun to imagine the scale and influence of the electronics industry that their breakthrough would spawn.
John Horgan
Science writer and journalist, director of the Horganism
Free will is the single most profound innovation in human intellectual history
Sir Tim Hunt
Principal scientist, Cancer Research UK, Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2001 (shared with Lee Hartwell and Paul Nurse)
Recombinant DNA technology stands for a whole panoply of clever tricks and brilliant inventions that have earned their many originators scores (or at least dozens) of Nobel prizes
Piet Hut
Professor of interdisciplinary studies at the Institute for Advanced Study
The possibility of creating a virtual lab in which to let stars and galaxies interact with each other is the greatest qualitative innovation in astrophysics
Simon Ings
science writer, critic and novelist
The invention of spectacles with arms increased one's comfortable reading-time from a few minutes to virtually every waking moment, and drove the Enlightenment as surely as the invention of printing drove the Renaissance