Home
Mobile version
spiked plus
About spiked
What is spiked?
Support spiked
spiked shop
Contact us
Advertising
Summer school
Top issues
Abortion
Arab uprisings
British politics
Child abuse panic
Economy
Environment
For Europe, Against the EU
Free speech
Jimmy Savile scandal
Nudge
Obesity
Parents and kids
Population
USA
View all issues...
special feature
The Counter-Leveson Inquiry
other sections
 Letters
 Review of Books
 Monthly archive
selected authors
Duleep Allirajah
Daniel Ben-Ami
Tim Black
Jennie Bristow
Sean Collins
Dr Michael Fitzpatrick
Frank Furedi
Helene Guldberg
Patrick Hayes
Mick Hume
Rob Lyons
Brendan O’Neill
Nathalie Rothschild
James Woudhuysen
more authors...
RSS feed
survey

abc def ghi jkl mno pqrs tuv wxyz index
Survey home
Introduction
Survey responses
RSS feed
Anjana Ahuja
Julian Baggini
Philip Ball
Marlene Oscar Berman
Gustav VR Born
K Eric Drexler
Marcus Du Sautoy
Edmond H Fischer
John Hall
Tim Hunt
Wolfgang Ketterle
Leon Lederman
Matt Ridley
Raymond Tallis
Frank Wilczek
Lewis Wolpert
Professor Howard Garner
professor of cognition and education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education


When I entered the field of psychology forty years ago, the dominant paradigm was Skinnerian behaviorism: describe human or animal behaviors as observed, and increase or decrease them through rewards or punishment. The ‘cognitive revolution’ was a major innovation: researchers peered inside the black box and, through theoretical models and experimental interventions, attempted to describe the mental structures and processes that are - or give rise to - thoughts as well as behaviours. Recently, an equally major innovation has been the various forms of brain imaging. Now, in addition to looking into the black box of the mind, we can begin to ascertain the brain processes that undergird cognition and behavior. Next will be the genes that give rise to brain, mind, and behavior - but we will continue to need explanations at all three levels of analysis.

Howard Garner is John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs professor of cognition and education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. adjunct professor of psychology at Harvard University and senior director of Harvard Project Zero.