Good new science encapsulates existing science, is counterintuitive, is elegant, and its predictions are falsifiable
I should teach the world that good new science can be recognised as having the following distinct features: it encapsulates existing science, it is counterintuitive, it is elegant, and its predictions are falsifiable.
Isaac Newton encapsulated the observations of Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei. Newton's new theory was counterintuitive, introducing the new concept of momentum. And his equation, force = rate of change of momentum, is extremely elegant. Finally, celestial and terrestrial mechanics were unified, making accurate calculations possible.
Albert Einstein encapsulated Newton. Einstein's new theory was counterintuitive, introducing constant light speed. And his formula, E = mc2, is extremely elegant. He made falsifiable predictions of slow clocks in space.
See Hans Erren's website.